Dengue is an endemic and epidemic disease in almost all of the tropical regions and in most subtropical regions. With an important incidence in Africa, it is more predominant in South-East Asia, the Pacific Islands and Central and South America. Dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are caused by one of four closely related, but antigenically distinct, virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4), of the genus Flavivirus. Infection with one of these serotypes provides immunity to only that serotype for life, so persons living in a dengue-endemic area can have more than one dengue infection during their lifetime. DF and DHF are primarily diseases of tropical and sub tropical areas, and the four different dengue serotypes are maintained in a cycle that involves humans and the Aedes mosquito. The Aedes aegypti is the most important vector.
Ultrasound techniques have been used for the evaluation of adults and children suffering from dengue. Depending on the disease’s severity, the ultrasonographic findings may vary from mild ascites, hepatomegaly and thickening of gallbladder walls in Stage I-II to these findings and pleural effusion, pancreatic enlargement, peri- or para-renal collections and pericardial effusion in Stage III-IV.